As Frank Moy sees it, being born in and growing up in a Chinese laundry is, in some ways, like living on a Hawai‘i plantation.

“Labor-intensive, low pay, long hours, strict rules and hard work. I knew as a young kid I was not going to work in a laundry like my father, my father’s brother, one of my brothers and my father’s cousins,” Moy said in an email interview.

Virginia residents Frank Moy and his wife, Marcia Mau, have been close friends with Hawai‘i plantation historian Barbara Kawakami since the 1990s, when she published her first book, “Japanese Immigrant Clothing in Hawai‘i: 1885-1941.”

To see the full content please subscribe to our Basic Online annual subscription.
Log In Subscribe